Who Voted For The Consuls In Ancient Rome

Rome was once a great civilization that revolved around several consuls. These consuls served as the political leaders of Rome over the course of centuries in its history. So who voted for them? The short answer is that all free Roman men of age had the right to vote for their consuls. However, there is much more to the story from social class and citizenship to more complex base structures of Roman power that go beyond the basic societal structures of voting. All of it helps to explain how and why the Roman system of selecting leaders worked for centuries.

The first part of the process was selecting viable candidates who had the right credentials. During the Republic, the only people who could serve as consuls were those who were Roman citizens and held a certain level of financial significance. Rome was heavily divided by social classes, with the patrician class of the nobles and wealthy at the top and the plebeian class of the lower class, such as small farmers and artisans, beneath them. The patrician class had long been the ruling class and only they could qualify to become consuls.

It was not an easy process to become a consul. Candidates had to meet certain qualifications, such as being of appropriate age, having a certain amount of wealth and having served in the military. Only those who had proven themselves to the Roman Senate and its members were eligible to become consuls. Once approved, the candidate was then put to the vote.

Voting in the Republic was conducted through a complicated process known as “sortition” or “divine choice,” an event that was held on the first day of each consular year. All eligible citizens were called together to the Forum where they cast their votes. All the citizens agreed that votes should be taken in the same way, with each person given an equal say. While nobility did hold sway, everyone had the same power to cast their vote.

The voting process was not without its problems. Since the citizens would line up randomly and cast their votes, the voting process did become chaotic on occasion. This confusion had the potential to result in a “false majority” which would skew the results of the election. These issues were addressed in later Roman law with strict regulations about how votes were to be conducted, who was to be present, etc.

However, the system of voting for consuls in Ancient Rome was an effective way of ensuring the selection of competent and even-handed leaders. The same system survived for centuries until the fall of the Roman Empire. Even though the Roman voting system may have been imperfect, it was a major step in the development of democracy and showed that even in a highly stratified society, everyone had the right to participate in choosing their leaders.

Social Conditions

The structure of voting in Ancient Rome was closely related to the social conditions of the times. Despite the fact that the consul candidates were always from the patrician class, the plebeians were also able to contribute by voting. This ensured that the voted-in consuls would govern in the interests of both classes. It also meant that there was a higher level of legitimacy for the chosen consuls, as their victory was derived from the collective will of both the upper and lower classes.

Not only that, but the plebeians also had a direct say in the legislation proposed by the consuls. It was their contention that there should be more equitable laws that favoured the lower classes, resulting in the rise of important reforms like the Law of the Twelve Tables that provided the foundation for Roman law.

Citizenship and Limitations

Despite the fact that voting was open to all free Roman citizens, there were some limitations on who could vote or be elected into office. Most notably, women, slaves and non-citizens were excluded from the voting process, which meant that the consuls weren’t always taken from the most diverse backgrounds. This limitation was a result of the structure of Roman society, which was generally patriarchal and discouraged women from participating in a public capacity.

The criteria for becoming a consul also meant that only a certain group was able to participate in the voting process. Candidates had to have a certain level of financial wealth, political connections and military experience that excluded potential candidates from the poorer classes. As a result, the wealthier and more elite members of society retained their hold on power for centuries.

Political Implications

The voting process for consuls was also highly elitist due to the political implications of the time. The patrician class held a majority of the power and had a vested interest in maintaining their control over the Republic. This meant that only those with the right political connections and sufficient wealth could become consuls. As a result, while plebeians were allowed to vote, their votes rarely had an impact on the election.

In addition, the patrician-controlled Senate frequently used its power to influence the election results. Many of the consuls were appointed by the Senate, regardless of how they were voted in. This allowed the Senate to maintain its hold on power, while appearing to maintain the veneer of democracy. This system allowed the Senate to manipulate the election outcomes to its own favor and further maintained the social and political status quo.

Economic Impact

The voting process for consuls also had an economic impact on Rome during the Republic. Since only wealthy individuals could run for office, it created an oligarchy of wealthy business owners and landowners who had the money and power to control the election results. This meant that the ability to buy and maintain power was concentrated in a small group, leading to the greater concentration of wealth in the hands of the few.

This system of wealth concentration created an imbalance of power in Roman society, allowing the rich to amass great amounts of political and economic influence. This could lead to further issues like corruption and even further economic inequality between classes. The wealth concentration also allowed them to strengthen their economic and political power by buying off votes and political influence. This ultimately led to them controlling a disproportionate amount of the wealth of Rome.

Social Factors

On the other hand, the voting process also had social benefits for Rome. The ability for everyone to vote meant that all citizens had a chance to have their voice heard and to have a say in who was running the Republic. This was seen as a major step forward for Roman society and it helped to maintain stability and unity, as the citizens were given direct control over the election process.

The voting process also had a major impact on Roman culture and traditions. For centuries, the citizens of Rome had the same opportunity to vote, regardless of social class or financial status. This showed that, at least in theory, Rome was a society of equals and was a place where everyone had the same importance and value. This helped to create a society that was based on equality and respect, something that was unheard of in most ancient civilizations of the time.


The voting process for consuls in Ancient Rome was a major milestone in the development of democracy and the concept of representative government. It allowed for citizens of all classes and backgrounds to have a say in the governance of their society, something that was rarely seen in the ancient world. This helped to foster a culture of unity and respect within Roman society and set the foundations for the Republic’s lasting legacy.

The voting process also helped to establish the principles of rule of law and the power of collective decision-making. This legacy was later adapted and adopted by many other societies and democracies across the world. While the voting process in Rome was far from perfect, it still stands as a major milestone in the development of democracy and the concept of representative government.

Moshe Rideout is a professional writer and historian whose work focuses on the history of Ancient Rome. Moshe is passionate about understanding the complexity of the Roman Empire, from its architecture to its literature, political systems to social structures. He has a Bachelor's degree in classic studies from Rutgers University and is currently pursuing a PhD in classical archaeology at UMass Amherst. When he isn't researching or writing, he enjoys exploring ruins around Europe, drawing inspiration from his travels.

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