What Type Of Government Does Ancient Rome Have For Kids

Ancient Rome is a period in world history that provided immense contributions to modern civic life. Rome helped shape the way we approach law, politics, construction, language and many other aspects of modern life. Kids who are curious about Roman history, may be wondering: what type of government did it have?

Ancient Rome was not always a republic. From 753 B.C. to 510 B.C., the city was ruled by a monarchy. This changed with the overthrow of Tarquin the Proud, the final king of Rome. From that point until 28 B.C., Rome was a republic. During this period, Rome was divided into two broad parts: the Senate and the Plebes. This division of government was known as the Roman Republic.

The Senate was composed of the wealthy and well-connected upper class of Rome. They had the power to pass laws and rulings that were binding upon both the Senate and the Plebes. Despite this power, the Senate was largely a consultative body with no real authority beyond making or amending laws or suggesting policy changes.

The Plebes were the lower classes of Roman citizens. They had little to no authority in the decision-making processes of Rome. For the most part, their interests were represented by the Senate, which was often known to overlook the needs of its citizens in the pursuit of political gain.

In the late Republic period, the Senate began to become more powerful and oppressive. Wealthy members of the Senate increasingly began disallowing the Plebes to have a say in the governance of Rome. This led to the rise of Julius Caesar, who advocated for the rights of the Plebes. After Caesar’s assassination, this power struggle eventually led to the transition of Rome from a Republic to an Empire.

The Roman Empire began in 27 B.C. and ended in 476 A.D. The rule of the Empire was generally autocratic. All power resided with the emperor, who ruled with absolute authority. There were, however, some checks and balances in place, such as the Roman Senate, which had some limited power over the emperor’s decisions.

The Senate had less powers under the Roman Empire. It served primarily as an advisory body to the emperor. But its members were still wealthy and influential, and had some clout in matters of state.

The Roman Empire fell in 476 A.D., ending the monarchy. Rome then transitioned back to its previous form of government, the Republic. However, by this time the Senate had become more powerful and oppressive. This is due in part to the political battles between the wealthy and the lower classes, which were a legacy of the Roman Empire.

The Roman Army

The Roman army was the driving force behind the Republic and Empire. It was a large and well-trained force, equipped with the most advanced weapons of the time. The army was highly disciplined, and training was rigorous. Soldiers were thought to possess great courage, and were expected to remain loyal to their commanders and the Roman state.

The Roman army was divided into legions, which each consisted of 5,000 men. The legions served both in combat and as a police force to maintain order in Rome. The legions were commanded by centurions and a praetor was responsible for commanding the entire army. This hierarchy was an important part of Roman society.

The Roman army proved to be one of the most formidable military forces in history. Its influence can still be seen today in modern militaries. Its tactics, such as the use of defensive fortifications and siege warfare, are still in use today. Its soldiers were highly capable and, through their courage and discipline, Rome was able to extend its reach far beyond its own borders.

Political Structure

The Roman political structure was based on cooperation between the Senate and the emperor. The Senate was the primary source of authority, and the emperor had to respect the wishes of its members. This ensured that the Senate had some say in the ruling of the Empire, even though it held no actual power.

The Senate was also divided into two parts – the Patricians and the Plebes. The Patricians were the nobles and wealthy citizens who were granted special privileges and authority by the emperor. The Plebes were the lower classes who had to rely on the Patricians for protection and influence.

In addition to the Senate, the Roman Empire had many local leaders and governors appointed by the emperor. It was their job to ensure local order and administer justice in their regions. These leaders had access to a variety of powers, including the ability to levy taxes and provide welfare to their citizens.

Civic Life

Under the Roman Empire, a number of powerful Roman families rose to prominence. These families used their influence to exert their will upon the entire empire. This allowed them to amass great wealth and political power. This system of patronage helped to sustain the Empire and provide a sense of stability.

In addition to the powerful patrician families, the Empire was home to numerous guilds and other associations, such as religious orders and private clubs. These organizations provided a means for citizens to come together, share information and support one another. This helped to foster a sense of belonging and belongingness, which was essential for the growth and prosperity of the Roman Empire.


The legacy of Rome is evident in our modern lives. Its legal system is the foundation of many modern judicial systems. Its politics is a model for many modern governments. Its language, Latin, is still spoken by many and is the basis for many Western languages.

Rome also left an indelible mark on architecture, engineering and construction. Its influence can be seen in the roads it built, its aqueducts, its many monuments and its feats of engineering. Rome’s legacy lives on in the form of art, literature and culture.

The legacy of Rome is a reminder that the world is full of opportunities for greatness, and that the will of a great leader can make all the difference. The Roman Empire was a great leader and its legacy continues to this day.

Influence on Modern Life

The influence of Rome can be seen throughout the world today. Its government and political system continue to serve as an inspiration for modern governments and constitutions. Its legal system has been adapted and modeled by many countries around the world.

The Roman Republic and Empire provided the world with many lasting contributions and innovations. Its art, literature and language has influenced generations of people. Its engineering and construction projects remain a testament to Roman engineering prowess. Its government and political system remain a model for many modern governments.

Rome’s legacy is still felt throughout the world. Its government, culture and language continue to be a source of inspiration. From the arts to the sciences, from politics to engineering and from culture to language, Rome’s legacy of greatness and greatness of legacy can be seen in many aspects of modern life.


Ancient Rome was an important period of world history. Its contributions to modern life are numerous and still felt to this day. The type of government ancient Rome had is one of the most important aspects of its legacy. Rome transitioned from a monarchy to a republic and then back again to an empire. During this transition, Rome developed its own unique political structure and left a lasting legacy of innovation and greatness to the world.

Moshe Rideout is a professional writer and historian whose work focuses on the history of Ancient Rome. Moshe is passionate about understanding the complexity of the Roman Empire, from its architecture to its literature, political systems to social structures. He has a Bachelor's degree in classic studies from Rutgers University and is currently pursuing a PhD in classical archaeology at UMass Amherst. When he isn't researching or writing, he enjoys exploring ruins around Europe, drawing inspiration from his travels.

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