What Three Things Unified Ancient Rome

Military Strength

Ancient Rome’s military strength was one of the main things that unified it. The Roman army was well organised and very advanced in comparison to other forces that they encountered. They utilised superior weapons and tactics and had a much larger workforce than their enemies. One example of their military power was when Julius Caesar invaded what is now the United Kingdom in 55 BC. After conquering the local forces, he was able to create the first bridge across the English Channel. This feat was possible due to Rome’s military might and unrivalled engineering capabilities.

The Roman army also developed specialised roles for individual soldiers. This ensured that each warrior was well trained and had a specific job that they were good at. For instance, cavalry and infantry had specialised roles in battle and were known for their efficiency and superiority on the battlefield. This unified the army and enabled it to outmatch any opposition in battle.

Moreover, the Emperor held supreme authority in Rome and each member of the army was loyal to him. This not only ensured that all of the soldiers would number behind the Emperor, but it also instilled a sense of nationality throughout the Roman Empire. This was a major factor in unifying the people of Rome.

Supply of Goods and Services

The Ancient Roman Empire had a highly advanced economy and was renowned for its supply of goods and services. Roman traders would venture far and wide to transport goods such as spices and silk. This enabled the Empire to stretch far beyond its borders and develop close trading relations with other nations, thus unifying the people of Rome.

The Romans also had an effective taxation system, whereby wealthy citizens would pay taxes on the goods and services that they bought. This ensured that the Empire had a constant supply of money which was utilised for infrastructure projects and other projects that were beneficial for the citizens. This helped to further unify the Empire, as citizens had access to better living standards and were content with their situation.

Additionally, the Roman Empire was well known for its architecture. Spectacular monuments, buildings, roads and aqueducts united the people of Rome and helped to create a feeling of national pride. As the citizens of Rome could observe the impressive feats of the Roman Empire, they were more willing to contribute to it and remain united with their fellow citizens.

Philosophy and Religion

One of the main things that kept Rome unified was its philosophy and religion. The Roman Empire had its own belief system which revolved around the gods, goddesses and superstitions. This belief system enabled the people of Rome to remain united, as they had a shared set of values, principles and morals. It created a sense of unity and belonging among the citizens and helped to bring people together.

In addition to this, the Roman Empire had its own legal and educational system, which helped to unify the citizens. This enabled the Empire to have a unified court system, which was able to make decisions in a fair and unbiased manner. It also helped to create a sense of justice throughout the Empire, as citizens felt that they could trust the judiciary. Furthermore, the education system enabled people to gain knowledge which helped to bring together the people of Rome.

Finally, the culture that united Rome was its visual culture, which was unique in the Ancient World. The Romans had a unique style of art, literature and theatre which depicted their culture and history. This enabled the citizens of Rome to feel connected to their predecessors and helped them to remember their heritage. This is why the visual culture of Rome has endured throughout the centuries and to this day, it still has a special place in the hearts of many.

Politics and Government

The system of government in Ancient Rome was one of the main things that held the Empire together. The Republic of Rome was founded in 509 BC and lasted until 27 BC when it was replaced by the Roman Empire. The Republic had a sophisticated system of government whereby elected magistrates acted as an executive branch and the Senate acted as the legislative branch. This system of checks and balances enabled the people of Rome to remain unified and able to govern the Empire with relative ease.

Furthermore, the Roman Empire had a well-developed system of laws which regulated social, political and economic life. This enabled the citizens to feel secure, as they knew that if they abided by the laws, they would be safe from harm. Moreover, the introduction of a strong legal system helped to put an end to corruption and ensure that justice prevailed. This gave the people of Rome a greater sense of unity and belonging.

Finally, the Roman Empire was known for its great leaders, who were renowned for their wisdom, fairness and courage. These great leaders had a lasting impact on the Roman Empire and their legacies still exist to this day. One example of this is Julius Caesar, who featured heavily in forming the structure of the Roman Empire and whose impact on Rome is still felt today. Leaders such as Julius Caesar helped to unify the Roman Empire and inspire its people to work together to make it one of the greatest Empires in history.

Cultural Traditions

Ancient Rome was well known for its rich cultural traditions and it was these traditions that helped to unify the people of Rome. One of the main cultural traditions was the celebration of festivals, which enabled the citizens of Rome to come together and celebrate in honour of their gods and goddesses. These celebrations allowed the Romans to come together and socialise with one another, enabling them to become more unified. One example of a festival was the Saturnalia, which was celebrated annually in December and involved singing, feasting and theatre performances. This celebration was very significant to the people of Rome and continues to be celebrated today.

In addition to this, Roman citizens also had great pride in their customs. They would proudly display the logos and symbols of their culture and it was this that enabled them to remain united. The Romans also had significant respect for their revered authors, philosophers and gods, which is still evident in the aesthetics and values that are seen in Rome today. This enabled the people of Rome to remain unified as they shared a common faith.

Finally, the Romans were well known for their literature. They had a great interest in poetry and drama and these genres of literature enabled the citizens to remain united as they shared an appreciation for the same stories and works. This was also an important tool in spreading the Roman culture, as it enabled the people to share their stories and values with one another. It is this connection that enabled the people of Rome to remain unified and make the Roman Empire what it was.

Language and Communication

The Ancient Roman Empire also had a unified language which enabled it to communicate effectively. Latin was the official language of the Roman Empire and this enabled the citizens to communicate with one another, regardless of their origin. This helped to unify the people of Rome as they could understand each other’s language and culture. This practice of utilising the same language is still in use today, as English is seen as the international language of business and an effective means of communication throughout the world.

Additionally, the Romans had an effective system of written communication. This enabled citizens to communicate with one another through letters and official documents, which helped to bring people together. This literature also enabled the people of Rome to learn about their culture and values, as it contained facts about history and culture. The written language of the Romans also had a great effect on the world today, as the Latin alphabet is still in use in almost every language today.

Finally, the Romans had an amazing system of roads that enabled them to unify their empire. These roads enabled citizens to travel around the Empire quickly and in relative safety. It also enabled the Roman Empire to establish contact with other peoples and develop trade. This great network of pathways enabled the Roman Empire to expand and unify its lands.

Citizen Rights

Finally, the Ancient Roman Empire also had laws which ensured that the rights of its citizens were respected. These laws enabled citizens to trade freely and practice their religions without persecution. This gave the citizens of Rome a sense of security and helped them to remain unified. Additionally, the laws enabled the Empire to have a unified legal system which could fairly and accurately impose laws in order to protect its citizens. These laws remained in place until the fall of the Roman Empire in 476AD, and to this day, the principles of fairness and justice are still present in the legal systems of the world.

Finally, Rome also had some of the first forms of representative democracy and had an elected Senate which enabled citizens to participate in the government. This was an important factor in unifying the Roman Empire, as citizens could feel that their voices were heard and their opinions mattered.

Moreover, the Empire also had an effective welfare system, whereby citizens who were in need were given food, shelter and money from the state. This system was an important factor in unifying the people of Rome, as it enabled citizens to feel secure and provided them with a sense of social equity. This system also enabled the citizens of Rome to remain loyal to the Roman Empire and encouraged them to be more unified in the face of adversity.


Ancient Rome was an incredibly unified empire due to its strong military, economy, government, language, culture, philosophy and religion. These factors enabled the citizens of Rome to remain unified and work together to create one of the greatest empires of all time. To this day, the legacy of Rome lives on, as the principles of unity and justice that it instilled are still present in the modern world.

Moshe Rideout is a professional writer and historian whose work focuses on the history of Ancient Rome. Moshe is passionate about understanding the complexity of the Roman Empire, from its architecture to its literature, political systems to social structures. He has a Bachelor's degree in classic studies from Rutgers University and is currently pursuing a PhD in classical archaeology at UMass Amherst. When he isn't researching or writing, he enjoys exploring ruins around Europe, drawing inspiration from his travels.

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